Biology is the study of life but botany is a subject that supports the study of the plant’s life. It involves the study of plant’s physiology, taxonomy, morphological structure, and functions. Without the proper knowledge about the propagator of life, a medical student can never fully understand the value of life. Realizing the importance of botany, Board Of Intermediate education has assigned botany as a compulsory subject for fsc Pre-medical students.

The paper of Botany is relatively short with only 50 marks while it is divided into three sections: subjective, objective and practical examination.

Botany – XII Second Year – Punjab Board


Subject name Botany
Class XII/2nd year
Board Punjab board
Subject Affiliation Pre-Medical
Book Chapters Count 13
Subject Type Compulsory
Paper Type Subjective, Objective And Practical
Marks scheme Total= 50

  •         Subjective=33
  •           Objective=09
  •            practical= 08
Minimum passing marks 22.5/50
Subject features Online recorded lectures, virtual lab simulations, online assessments, notes, mcqs and games.

15.1  Concepts in Homeostasis
15.2  Osmoregulation
15.3  Excretion
15.4  Excretion in Human
15.5  Disorders of Urinary Tract
15.5  Disorders of Urinary Tract

16.1  Support in Plants
16.2  Movements in Plants
16.3  Support and Movements in Animals
16.4  Human Skeleton
16.5  Deformities of Skeleton
16.6  Repair of Broken Bones
16.7  Muscles
16.8  Locomotion

17.1  Coordination in Plants
17.2  Biological Clocks and Circadian Rhythms
17.3  Plant Hormones
17.4  Coordination in Animals
17.5  Human Nervous System
17.6  Endocrine Glands of Mammals
17.7  Endocrine System of Man
17.8  Behaviour

18.1  Reproduction
18.2  Reproduction in Plants
18.3  Tissue Culturing and Cloning
18.4  Identical TwinsTissue Culturing and Cloning
18.5  Sexual Reproduction
18.6  Reproduction in Man
18.7  Test Tube Babies
18.8  Sexually Transmitted Diseases

19.1  Growth and Development in Plants
19.2  Growth and Development in Animals
19.3  Aging
19.4  Regeneration
19.5  Abnormal Development
19.5  Abnormal Development

20.1  Types of Chromosomes
20.2  Composition of Chromosome
20.3  The Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
20.4  DNA as Hereditary Material
20.5  What is a Gene
20.6  Cells Use RNA to Make Protein
20.7  Mutations

21.1 Cell Cylce
21.2 Mitosis
21.3 Meiosis

22.1  Genes, Alleles and Gene Pool
22.2  Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
22.3  Dominance Relations
22.4  Multiple Alleles
22.5  Epistasis
22.6  Pleiotropy
22.7  Continuously Varying Traits
22.8  Gene Linkage
22.9  Crossing Over
22.10  Sex Determination
22.11  Sex Linkage
22.12  Diabetes Mellitus and Its genetic Basis

23.1  Cloning of Gene
23.2  The Human Genome Project
23.3  Biotechnology Products
23.4  Gene Therapy
23.5  Tissue Culture

24.1 Concept of Evolution VS Special Creation (1 videos)
24.2 Evolution From Prokaryotes to Eukaryotes (1 videos)
24.3 Inheritance of Acquired Charateristics (4 videos)
24.4 Natural Selection and Artificial Selection (5 videos)
24.5 Endangered Species

25.1  Introduction
25.2  Ecosystem
25.3  Succession
25.4  Biogeochemical Cycle
25.4  Biogeochemical Cycle

26.1  Aquatic or Hydrospheric Ecosystem
26.2  Terrestrial or Lithospheric Ecosystem
26.3  Some major Ecosystems in Pakista

27.1  Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources
27.2  Degradation and Depletion of Resources
27.3  Man’s Impact on Enviroment
27.4  Deforestration And Afforestration
27.5  Pollution
27.6  Health and Diseases
27.6  Health and Diseases


Interactive 3D Simulations to help you build concepts fast.


Quizzes and assignments to prepare you for exams along the way.


Powerful teaching techniques help you digest information easily.


Front board technique to keep you more engaged with an instructor.


Ask questions in comments when in doubt and get answers quickly.


>Better learning experience than a crowded classroom in half of a fee.

Botany – XII Second Year – Punjab Board

Ms. Ramsha

Botany – XII Second Year Punjab Board

Miss Ramsha is certainly a prodigy of botany subject. She commands and teaches this complex subject with great panache and confidence. She bends the concepts of botany to her will and imparts that knowledge to her students in the simplest possible ways. She also has amazing command over her hands as this can be observed from her clear hand-drawn labeled diagrams. All of these amazing qualities increase the students learning experience by 10 folds; resulting in the better grasp of concepts and ideas.

Miss Ramsha is an MBBS from Jinnah Sindh Medical University. Students can find her lectures exclusively at with the help of online recorded lectures, animations and online assessments.


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