Botany is an important subject primarily because it is the scientific study of plants, which are in turn used in many aspects of human life. It is an important field of science that is very much related to plants. It includes the scientific study of the physiology, structure, genetics, ecology, distribution, classification, and economic importance of plants. Moreover, it is also the plant life of a particular region, habitat, or geological period. Botany is not only important as a subject of study but also spawns multiple elite professions and fields. Success in these professions and field can create researches worth millions of dollars.

The point of all this rambling is that students should never underestimate this subject. Second Year/2nd year Botany consists of 10 chapters and students have to study and learn all these chapters in order to achieve success in this majestical subject.


Subject name Botany
Class XII/2nd year
Board Sindh board
Subject Affiliation Pre-Medical
Total Chapters 10
Subject Type Compulsory
Paper Type Subjective, Objective And Practical
Marks scheme Total= 50

  • Subjective=33
  • Objective=09
  • practical= 08
Minimum passing marks 22.5/50
Subject features Online recorded lectures, virtual lab simulations, online assessments, notes, mcqs and games.

1.1 Homeostasis and Its Various Aspects
1.2 Osmoregulation
1.3 Excretion
1.4 Thermoregulation
1.5 Thermoregulation in Mammals

2.1 Support in Plants
2.2 Movements in Plants
2.3 Role of Growth Substance in Plant Movement
2.4 Support and Locomotion in Animals
2.5 Skeletal System
2.6 Muscular System
2.7 Locomotion

3.1 Coordination in Plants
3.2 Plant Hormones
3.3 Coordination and Control in Animals
3.4 Nerve Impulse
3.5 Evolution of Nervous System
3.6 Human Nervous System
3.7 Chemical Coordination
3.8 Animal Behaviour

4.1 Reproduction in Plants (Asexual Reproduction)
4.2 Sexual Reproduction
4.3 Inflorescence
4.4 Alternation of Generation
4.5 Seed Dormancy
4.6 Transition to Flowering Stages
4.7 Vernalisation
4.8 Photoperiodism
4.9 Reproduction in Animals (Asexual Reproduction)
4.10 Sexual Reproduction
4.11 Reproductive Organs of a Human Male
4.12 Reproductive Organs of a Human Female
4.13 Female Reproductive Cycle
4.14 Hormonal Control of Reproductive Cycles
4.15 Conception and Pregnancy
4.16 Birth
4.17 Test Tube Babies
4.18 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

5.1 Growth and Development in Plants
5.2 Condition of Growth
5.3 Growth Correlations
5.4 Growth and Development in Animals
5.5 Cell Differentiation and Its Mechanism
5.6 Role of Nucleus in Development
5.7 Role of Cytoplasm in Development
5.8 Aging
5.9 Regeneration
5.10 Abnormal Development

6.1 Types of Chromosomes
6.2 Chemical Composition of Chromosomes
6.3 Chromosomes as a Carriers of Genes
6.4 The Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
6.5 Gene -The Unit of Hereditary Information
6.6 Mutation

7.1 Cell Cycle
7.2 Mitosis
7.3 Meiosis

8.1 Genes and Alleles
8.2 Review of Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
8.3 Incomplete Dominance and Codominance
8.4 Multiple Alleles
8.5 Linkage and Crossing Over
8.6 Sex Determination and Sex Linkage
8.7 Diabetes Mellitus

9.1 Genetic Engineering
9.2 Tissue Culture

10.1 Theories of Evolution
10.2 Evidences in Favour of Organic Evolution
10.3 Importance of Natural Selection as a Possible Mechanism for Evolution
10.4 Artificial Selection and Its Role
10.5 Gene Frequencies and Their Role in Evolution
10.6 Endangered Species

11.1 Levels of Organisation
11.2 Approaches of Ecology
11.3 The Ecosystem
11.4 Biogeochemical Cycles
11.5 Interdependence of Organisms and Their Significance
11.6 Ecological Succession

12.1 Life in Fresh Water
12.2 Life in Marine Water
12.3 Terrestrial Ecosystem
12.4 Man’s Role in Ecosystem

13.1 Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources
13.2 Energy Conservation
13.3 Man’s Impact on Environment
13.4 Effects on Agriculture
13.5 Deforestation And Afforestation
13.6 Pollution
13.7 Non-Material Pollution
13.8 Protection and Conservation of Environment
13.9 Conservation of Organism and Their Habitat
13.10 Health and Diseases


Interactive 3D Simulations to help you build concepts fast.


Quizzes and assignments to prepare you for exams along the way.


Powerful teaching techniques help you digest information easily.


Front board technique to keep you more engaged with an instructor.


Ask questions in comments when in doubt and get answers quickly.


Better learning experience than a crowded classroom in half of a fee.

Botany – XII Second Year – Sindh Board

Miss. Ramsha

Botany – XII Second Year Sindh Board

Miss Ramsha is certainly a prodigy of botany subject. She commands and teaches this complex subject with great panache and confidence. She bends the concepts of botany to her will and imparts that knowledge to her students in the simplest possible ways. She also has amazing command over her hands as this can be observed from her clear labeled diagrams. All of these amazing qualities increase the students learning experience by 10 folds; resulting in the better grasp of concepts and ideas.

Miss Ramsha is an MBBS from Jinnah Sindh Medical University. Students can find her lectures exclusively at with the help of online recorded lectures, animations and online assessments.


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  • 6005,000
  • 300 Days

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