Chapter 22: Variation and Genetics – Botany XII Second Year Punjab Board

Botany is a subject that supports the study of the plant’s life. It involves the study of plant’s physiology, taxonomy, morphological structure, and functions.The paper of Botany is consist of three sections: subjective, objective and practical.


Variation and Genetics is the eighth chapter of XII Botany Punjab Board. Genetic variation is a term used to describe the variation in the DNA sequence in each of our genomes. Genetic variation is what makes us all unique, whether in terms of hair colour, skin colour or even the shape of our faces. Topics that we will learn in this chapter are: Genes and Alleles, Review of Mendel’s Law of Inheritance, Incomplete Dominance and Co-dominance, Multiple Alleles, Linkage and Crossing Over, Sex Determination and Sex Linkage and Diabetes Mellitus.

These concept will be easier for you in accordance with the below mentioned features:

  • Coverage of all the topics in detail.
  • Providing topic wise assessments to Students for real time evaluation and assignments for practicing the questions.
  • Topic wise Past Papers to classify the importance of each topic.
  • Study Plan for the Students to set weekly targets.
  • WhatsApp group for student queries.


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