The golden age of Islam: five Muslim scientists that changed the world

July 30, 2020 6:33 pm Published by Leave your thoughts

Islam has its own rich high premium history of Education and intellectual tradition.

Knowledge holds a significant role in Islam; In Quran, more than 800 has the reference for this statement.

Quran repeatedly emphasized the importance of Education and knowledge.

“God will exalt those of you who believe and those who have the knowledge to high degrees” (58:11).

“O my Lord! Increase me in knowledge” (20:114), and “As God has taught him, so let him write” (2:282).

These are some of the verses that provide a forceful provocation for the Islamic community to strive for learning and Education.

Theoretically and practically, Islamic Education is a bit different mostly because of encompassing the influence of our Holy Quran.

The Quran is sent to us as a blueprint for society and for an individual person, its primary source of knowledge for all of us.


The advent of Islam in the seventh century was quite revolutionary for the predominantly illiterate Arabian society.

The Arabs were proud of their rich literature and traditions.

When the Quran’s first surah drive and nobody could find a competitive comprehension against the surah.

Not even the best scholars of that time; hence, it was then proved that there is not any other book in the world full of knowledge other than Our Holy Quran.

The Quran is an inspiration for Muslims in seeking all kinds of knowledge.

Thus, Education in Islam unequivocally derived its origins from a symbiotic relationship with religious instruction.

Not only have Muslims dominated the world since the advent of Islam, but Muslim scientists have come up with bazillions of innovations, too.

Their various scientific studies that contributed to their extensive knowledge of astronomy in the field of medicine, i.e., sun, moon, stars, provided the world with the Universe’s multiple secret forces.

In addition, they have also contributed to numerous other science areas, i.e., chemistry, biology, mathematics, engineering, geography, and more.

The contribution of Muslims is vast; therefore, this article will only highlight five Muslim inventions that changed the world with their marvelous inventions.

#1 A.L. Khwarizmi:

He is one of the first Muslim Persian scientists regarded as the cornerstone of the science because of his invaluable contribution to Mathematics.

He founded algebra and set out the basics of algebraic equations in his book Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wal-muqabala.

A British Arabist translated this into what is known as The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing. After his book was translated, he became famous as algoritmi, from which the word algorithm also derives.

These equations aimed to make life simpler, mainly when one had to make Islam decreed calculations such as the Zakat or division of inheritance.

In the 21st Century, the absence of calculators and computers meant that reliable, precise, and swift mathematical equations had to be built to assist in complex or lengthy calculations.

He helped mathematics to become broader by bringing this idea into the world. Algebra helped construct virtually all in the 21st Century, from towering skyscrapers to long bridges.

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#2 Ghiyath al-Din al- Kashani :

Another extraordinary early Muslim mathematician was Ghiyath al-Din al-Kashani of the late fourteenth century.

He functioned on numbers theory and statistical techniques. Around 1424, he used an approximation of the circle by 805306368 side polygon to find a value of 2pi to sixteen decimal digits of precision.

One of his most famous works was “Miftah-ul-Hissab” or “The Key of Calculators;” He described an algorithm for finding any number ‘s fifth root.

It was taught in Persian schools until the seventeenth century. Later in his life, he was invited to the Samarkand to support directly to a new scientific school and observatory and research with other scholars of the time.

He also wrote on how to approximate error by solving a cubic equation accurately.

batttani my inter academy

#3 Al-Battani :

The Latin name of Abu Abdallah Muhammad Ibn Jabir Ibn Sinan al-Battani al-Harrani, Albategnius (c. 858-929), was born around 858 C.E. He was famous as mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.

He is one of the greatest Astronomist of Islam. He discovered some important discoveries in astronomy.

He is responsible for a number of important discoveries in astronomy, which resulted in long research of 42 years.

His well-known achievement is the amazingly precise solar year determination as 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds, very close to the current figures.

He noted that after Ptolemy, the longitude of the apogee of the sun had risen by 16°, 47′. It suggested an essential discovery of the motion of the

solar apsides and a sluggish variability in the time equation.

He revised Moon and planet orbits and suggested a new, rather ingenious theory to determine the visibility conditions of the new Moon.

In 1749, Dunthorne used Al-Battani ‘s excellent observations of the lunar and solar eclipses to determine the acceleration of the motion of the Moon.

He discovered many astronomical coefficients with great accuracy, for instance, Precession of Equinoxes 54.5″ a year and inclination of the Ecliptic 23o 35’.

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#4 Abu Ali Ibn Sina:

Ibn Sina is often known by Avicenna’s Latin name, although most references to him today have returned to using the correct version of ibn Sina.

He was one of the most celebrated philosophers and physicians in the early Islamic empire.

In the Latin West, his metaphysics and theory of the soul had a profound influence on academic and literary arguments.

In the Islamic east, some people regarded him as the principal representative of philosophy in Islam.

Like any other Islamic scholar, he also researched the writings of the lands incorporated into the growing Islamic Empire. For example, the Canon of Medicine includes the works of

Galeno, as well as the ancient Ayurvedic, Arabic, and Persian texts. This also includes his philosophy of medicine.

The resulting synthesis sets out a medical method that has been recognized as a standard for decades. As such, it has a massive influence on the advancement of medicine in much of the world.


#5 Al – Idrisi:

Al-Idrisi was born in Cordova, Spain, in 1099. His major achievement was in medicinal plants, which he identified in many books, such as Kitab al-Jami-li-Sifat Ashtat al-Nabatat.

He compiled plants and data that had not been described before and compiled them into the subject of botany.

Through him, a significant number of new herbal medicines with their tests suitable for medical practitioners.

As related to economics, physical factors, and cultural aspects, Al-Idrisi also prepared specific topography aid.

He has written geographical encyclopedias, the largest called

Rawd-Unnas wa Nuzhalat Nafs (Men’s Pleasure and Souls Delight).

Al-Idrisi also referred to the themes of fauna, zoology, and therapeutic features.

His work was soon translated into Latin, and his books on geography, in particular, remained famous in the East and West.

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This post was written by Ali Raza

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